Once identified we start building the organ needed. To achieve the right size and weight of the organ we use the person muscle mass index calculated with its own height and weight. I.e. If we wish to replace an esophagus in a person who weighs 70kg and measures 1.70 mt. (Giving us a muscle mass index of 25) we would have to built a 40 cms esophagus. We can also use a MRI to get a 3D image and get the measurements we need.
Once identified the organs dimension we start developing it by:
First, creating virtual frame for the organ in a CAD computer program, in order to do so we use the number phi as a base to recreate blood cell paths that will feed the new organs cells. We find Phi and its golden ratio all over the universe: in some mollusk, in tree structures, in sunflowers and our DNA.Biofab has created a computer program based on it and if you wish to learn more about it just let us know.
With the CAD model we fill up our first bioprinters hedpin with the Biofabhidrogel (patented) and begin to create the organ's structure. To know more about our gel please ask us confidentiality.
Meanwhike, we obtain -by using our extraction protocol- mesenchymal stem cells from fat or the third molar.
The extracted stem cells are differentiated and cultivated depending on the organ we will print. i.e. In order to print a esophagus we need endoderm cells, if we wish to print cartilage we will need chondrocytes cells.
Printing and Vascularity of the Organ
Once we have the design and biological material we begin the printing process
Printing is done layer by layer. first a layer of Hydrogel is printed as a frame, then the differentiated stem cells. By printing first the frame we can inject up to 17 nanomilimeters of biological material in the different paths we first made: G1 path (straight), G2 (semicircle), G3 (tangent) and G4 (cotangent) .
Since printing is done from the inside out, it can leave cavities of a thickness 10 times lower than the human hair, it is through this cavities that runs blood to feed the organ bringing it to life. That is the reason the process of printing one organ can be segmented and take quite a long time, about 10 hours to print a right knee cartilage and up to 48 hours to print an esophagus.
Once the organ is printed and loaded with biological material from stem cells it is brought to a bioreactor where it will be fed and cultivated to help its cells replicate in dozens of millions.
When the feeding and vascularity processes finish then the organ is transplanted to the human body.